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Ireland / Erin The earliest settlers arrived in Ireland around 9500 BC, following the slow Ice Age thaw and a gradual process of rehabitation of the British Isles.
Remnants of their presence are still scattered across the island.
During the sixth century, Saint Columba followed in the footsteps of the earlier Irish raiders to spread the Celtic Church into Dl Riata (now western Scotland), while in western Wales the Disi settled and helped to form the kingdom of Dyfed.
This is the oldest known name, which then leaves them to be distinguished from each other by Alba (meaning 'white', probably named after the chalk cliffs of Dover), and Hibernia, which is the rather sloppy Latin translation of 'Ierne' as written by the Greeks.The later high kings were nominally in charge but in practice, descended as many were from the prominent U Neill clan, there were always stresses and strains with the other regions.For the earlier high kings, the title was more of a ceremonial one, and never implied political control of the whole country.Mountsandel in Coleraine in the north of Ireland is the oldest known site of settlement, with remains of woven huts, stone tools, and food such as berries and hazelnuts being discovered there by archaeologists.The picture after that is very uncertain, but it seems most likely that several small waves of settlers arrived at various subsequent stages.
The passage tomb there is built around this time according to archaeological estimations, clearly constructed by people who have a sophisticated understanding of the motions of the sun, moon, and stars, thanks to the tomb's alignment and the lunar map found inside it.