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Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports.
) [ˈkɔlikat̪a], the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city eventually was to be established; the other two villages were Sutanuti and Govindapur.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which also hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India.
Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association.
Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, which was consolidating its trade business in Bengal.
In 1793, ruling power of the Nawabs were abolished and East India company took complete control of the city and the province.The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and tax evasion by the company.His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta.Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi.Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics.